(Reference : CEDEFOP, Terminology of Education and Training Policy. A selection of 100 key terms, 2008)
« A process by which an individual assimilates information, ideas and values and thus acquires knowledge, know-how, skills and/or competences.
Learning occurs through personal refl ection, reconstruction and social interaction. Learning may take place in formal, non-formal or informal settings. »
Learning outcomes/ learning attainments :
« The set of knowledge, skills and/or competences an individual has acquired and/or is able to demonstrate after completion of a learning process, either formal, non-formal or informal. »
Non-formal learning :
« Learning which is embedded in planned activities not explicitly designated as learning (in terms of learning objectives, learning time or learning support). Non-formal learning is intentional from the learner’s point of view.
– non-formal learning outcomes may be validated and lead to certifi cation;
– non-formal learning is sometimes described as semi-structured learning. »
Informal learning :
« Learning resulting from daily activities related to work, family or leisure. It is not organised or structured in terms of objectives, time or learning support. Informal learning is in most cases unintentional from the learner’s perspective.
– informal learning outcomes do not usually lead to certifi cation but may be validated and certifi ed in the framework of recognition of prior learning schemes;
– informal learning is also referred to as experiential or incidental/ random learning. »
Validation of learning outcomes :
« Confirmation by a competent body that learning outcomes (knowledge, skills and/or competences) acquired by an individual in a formal, non-formal or informal setting have been assessed against predefi ned criteria and are compliant with the requirements of a validation standard. Validation typically leads to certification. »
Valuing learning :
« The process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning, in order to raise awareness of its intrinsic worth and to reward learning.»
Certification of learning outcomes :
« The process of issuing a certifi cate, diploma or title formally attesting that a set of learning outcomes (knowledge, knowhow, skills and/or competences) acquired by an individual have been assessed and validated by a competent body against a predefi ned standard.»
«The ability to apply learning outcomes adequately in a defined context (education, work, personal or professional development).
competence is not limited to cognitive elements (involving the use of theory, concepts or tacit knowledge); it also encompasses functional aspects (involving technical skills) as well as interpersonal attributes (e.g. social or organisational skills) and ethical values. »
«The ability to perform tasks and solve problems. »
« The term qualification covers different aspects:
(a) formal qualifi cation: the formal outcome (certifi cate, diploma or title) of an assessment and validation process which is obtained when a competent body determines that an individual has achieved learning outcomes to given standards and/or possesses the necessary competence to do a job in a specifi c area of work. A qualifi cation confers official recognition of the value of learning outcomes in the labour market and in education and training. A qualifi cation can be a legal entitlement to practice a trade (OECD);
(b) job requirements: the knowledge, aptitudes and skills required to perform the specifi c tasks attached to a particular work position (ILO). »